Inicio 9 Cultura 9 Lo monstruoso en Midsommar (2019)

Lo monstruoso en Midsommar (2019)

junio 7, 2021

Por Verónica Flórez B.

Transcurrirá el tiempo. Los monstruos de la noche seguirán con su canto, pero tú te adaptarás temporalmente para sobrevivir.
Los monstruos de la noche (2019), Ivanna Zambrano

Cuando somos niños, no tenemos dudas de lo que es un monstruo. Es una forma anormal, alargada, con caracteres que representan peligro y posible daño (largas garras, dientes filosos); generalmente era herramienta de amenazas: “¡No hagas esto o viene el coco!”. Tenemos la seguridad de que debajo de nuestra cama, en el clóset más oscuro y estrecho, o en el lugar debajo de la escalera al que no llega la luz… hay un monstruo. No estamos seguros de qué nos haría exactamente, por qué querría hacernos daño. Pero nos hacía enrollarnos más en nuestras sábanas, clamarle a mamá y a papá por auxilio, no nos dejaban dormir en paz y nuestros cuartos, que representaban seguridad, confianza e intimidad, se convertían en zonas de peligro.


Más adelante, nos llenamos de referentes culturales que nos ayudan a consolidar la idea del monstruo: Frankestein, Nosferatu, Drácula, el Fauno. Configuraciones deformes, grotescas, absurdas, que tienen la intención de asustarnos a partir de la ruptura de nuestros estándares de normalidad y la amenaza a nuestra integridad física o categórica. Sin embargo, estos referentes, por una razón u otra, se agotan: pueden llegar a causarnos risa o nada en absoluto. ¿Eso significa que se acaban los monstruos?


Tal vez la idea de monstruo no esté enteramente relacionada a un ser que chupa sangre, que vuela, que es peludo o que posea cualquier característica sobre natural. Cabría preguntarse cuántas cosas, por muy cotidianas que parezcan, se convierten en monstruos. Algo que no sólo nos desagrada, pero que nos asusta: tanto por algún daño que pueda causarnos, como por la incertidumbre que nos produce. No hay nada más terrorífico que un misterio que no podamos resolver.


Midsommar (2019) es catalogada como una película de terror y, efectivamente, el final del film no deja espacio para sentir otra cosa. Sin embargo, el largometraje está constituido por una trama bastante particular dentro del género: las acciones o nodos narrativos están muy distantes uno del otro, lo que le da la sensación de lentitud. Entonces ¿cómo podemos asustarnos con una narrativa que no nos sorprende, que no nos da los clásicos jumpscares, que no nos muestra al monstruo en plenitud? ¿Cómo es ese monstruo en Midsommar, que nos llena de miedo?


Apuntar a que el monstruo está compuesto por el pequeño pueblo o culto en medio del bosque sueco es una respuesta fácil. No es una relación tan directa. Como menciona Jeffrey Cohen en su libro Monster Theory: Reading Culture (1996): “Like a letter on the page, the monster signifies something other than itself” (p.4). El monstruo es una construcción de elementos no tan demostrativos. Se podría comenzar por la trampa generada por las apariencias: un pequeño pueblo que recibe a los visitantes atentamente, con dulzura, alegría y los brazos abiertos. Todo lo “malo” que pueda pasar no es advertido por ellos y pasa bajo la mesa de la lengua: al no hablar el mismo idioma que los turistas, no hay comunicación directa. Esto genera una constante incertidumbre y abre el espacio para llenarlo de malentendidos y tragedias.


También se encuentra la crisis de categorías, señalada por Cohen como una parte esencial del monstruo: el monstruo amenaza, critica o ataca directamente a nuestros conceptos, a nuestros cimientos de normalidad. Aquí recordamos uno de los diálogos más famosos dentro del género: el del monstruo de Frankestein con su creador, donde la criatura pone en tela de juicio todo el papel de la humanidad y sus conceptos de bien y mal.

En Midsommar, Dani (la protagonista) no se recuperó nunca luego de haber presenciado el sacrificio de los dos ancianos en el ritual. No solo el hecho de verlos caer por un risco y aplastarse explosivamente en el piso, sino la normalidad con que el resto del pueblo aceptaba aquel acto. La muerte, el sacrificio, y la exposición del cuerpo crudo y abierto son elementos que, culturalmente, hacen temblar y quebrantar las categorías y conceptualizaciones de esta protagonista. Pero, curiosamente, es justo lo que Dani necesitaba: ella ya había pasado por situaciones límite: el suicidio de su hermana, que llevó al asesinato de sus padres, la infidelidad de su pareja. En su vida ya había cierto tambaleo de las bases que le daban seguridad, pero cuando se encontró en este medio, se alivió de que ya no tuviese que preocuparse por cosas como la muerte o el engaño: no existían. El monstruo logra darle un final catártico a este personaje, y cabría preguntarse si ella, en la escena final, donde ve la pequeña casa prenderse en fuego, no se ha convertido también en un monstruo.


El monstruo es una construcción, pero también puede ser un enfrentamiento. Podríamos considerar que la ingenuidad de los turistas, aquella superioridad que creen que tienen por ser investigadores, la facilidad con que aceptan la bondad de los residentes, formula a otro monstruo. Hay algo muy terrorífico en llegar a un lugar nuevo, desconocido, que no forma parte de la cultura hegemónica, donde no se comparte la misma lengua; en la ignorancia, en la falsa superioridad cultural.


Midsommar encierra a sus personajes en medio de un pequeño bosque europeo, de la misma manera en que podría encerrarlos en el castillo de Drácula, donde correrían por los pasillos para salvar sus vidas. Pero en vez de una persecución violenta, los protagonistas son confundidos y engañados por trampas justificadas con tradición y amabilidad. El monstruo de Midsommar amenaza todo un sistema de creencias: desde algo tan sencillo como el “viaje reparador”, hasta el entendimiento de la vida o la muerte. Ari Aster construye el terror, no deja que este monstruo sea algo fácilmente demostrable, no lo deja salir a plena luz del día, pero aun así nos deja saber que ahí está, aterrorizándonos poco a poco, hasta que nos hace llegar a un final donde, incluso, como espectadores, nos asustamos ante la idea de estar felices por Dani.

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