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Hablemos de género, sexo y sexualidad

enero 30, 2021

Género, sexo y sexualidad son palabras que pareciera que pueden utilizarse de forma intercambiable, sin embargo, cada una tiene su significado propio y es importante conocer sus diferencias para fomentar el respeto entre nosotros y los miembros de nuestra comunidad. Tenemos la suerte de vivir en un contexto de la historia en el que se celebra cada vez más la diversidad y conocer un poco más terminologías como esta, ayuda a que siga siendo posible.

¡Ojo! Si bien es importante tener en cuenta estas diferencias, no somos quiénes para cuestionar la identidad de género o sexualidad de nadie más. Si alguien se siente seguro, preparado y en confianza, dará a conocer esa información.

Entenderlo con una galleta

Uno de los esquemas utilizados para empezar a entender estos conceptos es la “Genderbread Person”, que debe su nombre un juego de palabras entre Gender (género en inglés) y el nombre en inglés de las galletitas de pan de jengibre: gingerbread cookie, también llamadas gingerbread men (hombre de jengibre). Utilizando la figura clásica de las galletitas, se trata de explicar la diferencia entre sexo anatómico, identidad de género, expresión de género y atracción romántica y sexual (anteriormente colocado en versiones previas de la galleta como sexualidad).

Empecemos a picar esta galleta en pedacitos con los siguientes conceptos:

Sexo anatómico o sexo biológico

Hablamos de sexo cuando nos referimos a las características físicas con las que naces (por ejemplo, genitales) o que desarrollas (por ejemplo, el vello facial y púbico), así como también al sexo asignado al nacer (aquel que aparece en nuestra partida de nacimiento). Ejemplos de características sexuales son el vello facial, genitales, cromosomas, hormonas, entre muchas más.

Identidad de género

Ubicada en la cabeza de la galleta, es como tú, en tu mente, experimentas y defines tu género. Este se basa en lo mucho que puedes estar “alineado” (o, por el contrario, en lo que no te alineas) con las opciones para género que tú entiendes que existen. Algunas cosas comunes de identidad de género son rasgos de personalidad, hobbies (por ejemplo, en nuestra sociedad actual el trabajo manual está asociado con el género masculino, y la cocina con el género femenino), lo que te gusta y lo que no te gusta, carrera profesional, ocupación, roles, expectativas.

Expresión de género

Es la forma en la que presentas tu género (a través de tus acciones, tu vestimenta, comportamiento, por nombrar algunas cosas) y cómo esa presentación es percibida basada en las expectativas sociales. La forma en la que demuestras afecto, si te colocas maquillaje o no, si te pintas las uñas, cuál es tu corte de cabello, qué ropa te pones, los manierismos que tengas, son cosas relacionadas a la expresión de género.


Atracción

Como lo dice su nombre, es cómo te sientes atraído (o no) a otras personas, de manera sexual, romántica u otra. Puedes sentir atracción sexual o romántica hacia uno o más géneros, así como puedes sentir atracción sexual más no romántica, o puedes simplemente no sentir atracción en absoluto. No es un componente del género, pero generalmente se suele categorizar a la atracción que experimentamos en formas de género.

Si te has fijado en las imágenes que se encuentran debajo de cada concepto, las flechas tienen un efecto de degradado, y van desde ese signo que representa “no” hasta la punta de una flecha. Esto es porque todo lo anteriormente hablado es un espectro y es fluido, no hay un negro o un blanco sino muchos matices; el esquema de la Genderbread Person trata de plasmarlo de esa manera.

Es importante tomar en cuenta que no estás en obligación de ubicarte en ninguna de las flechas dibujadas arriba. Cada quién está experimentando un viaje diferente y quizá se sienta abrumado por sentir la necesidad de llegar a un destino. Recuerda que la vida es el camino, y hay que recorrerlo con calma y asimilar el paisaje.

Todo esto, por vasto y quizás un poco enredado que parezca, apenas es un abrebocas. Los creadores de esta galleta y la humilde redactora de este artículo pretenden que con esta información los lectores se animen a investigar más, a responder sus dudas y a entender que el ser humano es un ente complejo, que no puede explicarse en absolutos, que fluye, experimenta y cambia.

Lo que no entendemos, nos causa miedo y lo que nos da miedo, solemos atacarlo. Hagamos el ejercicio, la próxima vez que nos sintamos en una posición de atacar, a alguien más o, incluso, a nosotros mismos, intentemos primero entender.

Recursos que te pueden interesar:

Colaboradora para El Banquete. Médico Cirujano egresada de la Universidad Central de Venezuela. Formó parte de Modelos de Naciones Unidas desde los 14 años, participó en el Campamento Multidisciplinario de Investigación y Servicio (CUMIS-UCV), defensora de los Derechos Humanos, feminista y amante de los libros.

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